Questions

Large Hadron Collider – The Large Hadron Collider in Geneva – Risks?

As the LHC should be ready for firing at full power at some point in the near future, I was wondering what the implications might be if something went wrong with the machine. I've heard theories ranging anything from the ultimate collapse of the space-time continuum and physics as we know it, to all of the quantum interference of a mosquito farting. Does anyone have an opinion on the LHC's risks and possible negative effects? Many thanks for your time.

Those theories aren't based on science. They have as much validity as the 2012 nonsense, and they've been replacing 2012 here in the last few weeks. In fact, some trolls seem to have set up accounts specifically for the purpose of asking "Is the LHC gonna end the world?" a couple of times a day.

There aren't any risks. The energies and more occur routinely in the upper atmosphere as natural processes every day. And the upper atmosphere has not created any black holes or ended the world so far as I know.

The largest risk is that some idiot paranoid crazy people try to destroy the LHC, causing incredible dollar amounts of damage and hurting people operating it. This will infuriate scientists and people who use logic around the globe, starting a war between people who use science and people who don't. Of course, the people who use science have created every weapon and communications system in the world, so they will win. Without moron conspiracy theorists around there will be no impediments to scientific progress and a wonderful new world will come about.

So that's the biggest risk to you conspiracy people.

Wednesday, March 17th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on Large Hadron Collider – The Large Hadron Collider in Geneva – Risks?

Protons Energy – What happens to the energy when 2 protons collide head-on and 100s of particles fly out in all directions?

If you are talking about particle accelerators, a lot happens to the energy. Since the protons have so much kinetic energy when they collide, they don’t simply stay as protons. They turn into 100’s of particles, also moving quickly. Since E = mc^2, we don’t need to conserve just mass or just energy. In fact, if we total the mass times c^2 and the energy of all these particles, we would get the original two protons’ energy.

The resulting shower of particles then goes and hits or bounces off other things, which equipment in the particle accelerator is designed to detect, since it heats the equipment up ever so slightly. The rest just fly off until they decay into something stable.

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Monday, March 15th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on Protons Energy – What happens to the energy when 2 protons collide head-on and 100s of particles fly out in all directions?

Big Bang Machine – Will the big bang machine or black hole machine destroy the world in 2010?

i mean ive been going crazy about 2012 and this site has helped me a lot about what the calender means so uh well thanks a lot guys but well i searched black hole machine and someone said they will launch next year in 2012 in september? please help me undertsand im so confused and scared all the time.

You’re probably talking about the scare-stories some people are throwing around about the Large Hadron Collider, a new and very high energy accelerator.

That seems to be the latest thing every time there’s a new higher-energy accelerator experiment planned. “OMG OMG they’re going to make a black hole and destroy the earth” or “OMG OMG they’re going to re-create the Big Bang and destroy the earth”. None of this has any actual basis in physics, it’s just half-baked misunderstandings based on misreadings of something from the press releases.

Then the experiment happens and the scare stories subside. Then there’s a new accelerator experiment planned and it starts all over again.

This is all just as unscientific and nonsensical as the 2012 stuff. The difference is that there are a couple of people with scientific background who apparently appear on these scare sites. However, their scientific background tends to be in non-physics fields such as botany. They don’t know any more about the physics than the average layman.

No.

supplied by Yahoo answers http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20091215110758AAAaUUc

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Saturday, March 13th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on Big Bang Machine – Will the big bang machine or black hole machine destroy the world in 2010?

European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?

I dont understand how the conditions of big bang can be created by colliding two particles ??
Wont it result in fatal explosion??
What are the particles that are being collided??
What will be ultimately discovered and what will the significance of the discovery??
What are the hazards we face because of the collider ??
When will the experiment end ??
Who is financing the research ??

1. Energy density is the key – the collisions reach energy densities that existed right after the Big Bang. The higher the energy density, the closer you are to the energy densities right after the Big Bang. Depending on energy density, the more different reactions happen after the collision. The LHC does not create a second Big Bang (for that you would need MUCH more energy, since the age of superinflation is not even reached yet in terms of energy density), it only experimentally recreates the conditions afterwards.
2. No, not even if they do an emergency shutdown. Such a shutdown would project the energy of a 500 kg bomb into two dead-end sections of the accelerator ring, that are especially designed and cooled for absorbing the energy stored in the beams.
3. Protons and eventually lead ions.
4. No idea. I am pretty bad in predicting the future. But it’s first purpose is to verify experimental data from other old particle accelerators, that was beyond the measurement accuracy of these. The LHC has much better sensors as older accelerators.
5. Unless you work for the CERN, there is no hazard. We have detected 150,000 protons with tiny detectors in 15 years, that came from space and have up to 300,000,000 times the energy of the protons inside the LHC. Such protons bombard Earth for billions of years, without causing trouble.
6. In about 15-20 years, after some upgrades.
7. The CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It is funded from taxes of almost all European countries, the top three are Germany, UK and France.The LHC construction had been paid by the European countries + USA, Japan & Canada directly, the CERN is only responsible for the research operations – CERN are the guys who invented the Internet as you know it, at that time for exchanging research data in the highly decentralized CERN (the experiments in CERN are independent and have no central management above them)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, intended to collide opposing particle beams of either protons at an energy of 7 TeV per particle or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV per nucleus. It is expected that it will address the most fundamental questions of physics, which seem to block further progress in understanding the deepest laws of nature. The LHC lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as much as 175 metres (570 ft) beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland.

The Large Hadron Collider was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) with the intention of testing various predictions of high-energy physics, including the existence of the hypothesized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetry. It is funded by and built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

On 10 September 2008, the proton beams were successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC for the first time.[4] On 19 September 2008, the operations were halted due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets.[5] Repairing the resulting damage and installing additional safety features took over a year.[6][7] On 20 November 2009 the proton beams were successfully circulated again,[8] and the first high-energy collisions are expected to be attempted in early 2010.[9]

So you have already been told about the LHC, lets concentrate on your other questions.
Big Bang states that universe was originated from a highly dense point of pure energy (no matter).thus when two very thin particle beams are accelerated in opposite directions they gain very high momentum and then when they collide it creates a situation analogues to the Big Bang.
No it doesnt result in a fatal explosion but in creation of matter and anti-matter. If this happens then it will prove our long belief of the Bang. No hazards of the collider, just that its 27 kms long and requires a hell lot of space.

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Wednesday, March 10th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?

Higgs Boson – Can someone explain the Higgs-Boson particle?

I kind of know about it but want it in laymans terms.

Every object we see around us has the property we refer to as mass. We think of mass as the amount of matter in an object,and we recognise and describe its presence through observations of an object’s inertia , and the force required to accelerate it etc.We know that this mass comes from the mass of all the fundamental particles that such objects are made of and that the masses of these fundamental particles , vary enormously . But there is no obvious reason as to what mass actually is or why the fundamental particles have such a wide range of it.
The Higgs particle / field is believed to be the answer . The theory is that the universe is actually filled with Higgs particles /field and it is the varying degrees of the interaction of fundamental particles with the Higgs particles /field that gives rise to the property we call mass.

The Higgs boson is a massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model in particle physics. At present there are no other known fundamental scalar particles in nature.

The Higgs boson is the only Standard Model particle that has not been observed. Experimental detection of the Higgs boson would help explain the origin of mass in the universe. The Higgs boson would explain the difference between the massless photon, which mediates electromagnetism, and the massive W and Z bosons, which mediate the weak force. If the Higgs boson exists, it is an integral and pervasive component of the material world.

To understand the Higgs mechanism, imagine that a room full of physicists quietly chattering is like space filled only with the Higgs field
a well known scientist walks in, creating a disturbance as he moves across the room, and attracting a cluster of admirers with each step
this increases his resistance to movement, in other words, he acquires mass, just like a particle moving through the Higgs field
if a rumour crosses the room it creates the same kind of clustering, but this time among the scientists themselves. In this analogy, these clusters are the Higgs particles.

The Higg’s field interaction may be described as follows. The weak interaction is mediated by spin-1 bosons which act as force carriers between quarks and/or leptons. There are three of these intermediate vector bosons, which were all discovered at CERN in 1983. They are the charged bosons W+ and W- and the neutral Z0. Their masses are measured to be: –

M(W) = 80.3 Gev/c² and M(Z) = 91.2 Gev/c²

which gives their ranges as: –

R(W) ≈ R(Z) ≈ 2 x 10^-3 fm

Their decay modes are as follows: –

W+ -> l+ + vl
W- -> l- + vl’
Z0 -> l+ + l-

Where the l’s stand for leptons and the v’s for neutrinos with the prime ‘ indicating an anti-neutrino. This introduction sets the scene for what follows!

The intermediate vector bosons gain their mass from the Higgs boson. Please allow me to explain. During the nineteen-sixties the theoretical physicists Glashow, Salam and Weinberg developed a theory which unified the electromagnetic and the weak nuclear forces. This theory is known as the ‘electroweak’ theory, it predicted the neutral vector boson Z0, and weak nuclear force reactions arising from its exchange, in what are known as neutral current reactions. The theory also accounted for the heavy charged bosons W+ and W-, required for the mediation of all observed weak interactions, known as charged current reactions. These particles were discovered in 1983.This unified theory is a ‘gauge invariance’ theory, which means that if the components of its underlying equations are transformed, in position or potential, they still predict exactly the same physics. Because the force carrying particles (Z0, W+ and W-), of this theory, are massive spin-1 bosons a spin-0 boson is required to complete the theory. This spin-0 boson is the as yet unobserved ‘Higgs’ boson.

The masses of the force carrying bosons (Z0, W+ and W-), for the electroweak theory, are derived from their interaction with the scalar Higgs field. Unlike other physical fields, the Higgs field has a non-zero value in the vacuum state, labelled φ0, and furthermore this value is not invariant under gauge transformation. Hence, this gauge invariance is referred to as a ‘hidden’ or ‘spontaneously broken’ symmetry. The Higgs field has three main consequences’. The first, is that the electroweak force carrying bosons (Z0, W+ and W-) can acquire mass in the ratio: –

M(W) =cosθ(W)
_____
M(Z)

Where θ(W) Is the electroweak mixing angle. These masses arise from the interactions of the gauge fields with the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. Secondly, there are electrically neutral quanta H0, called Higgs bosons, associated with the Higgs field, just as photons are associated with the electromagnetic field. Thirdly, the Higgs field throws light on the origin of the quark and lepton masses. In the absence of the Higgs field the requirements of gauge invariance on the masses of spin-½ fermions (quarks and leptons etc,) would set them at zero for parity violating interactions (non-mirror image interactions). Parity is a conserved quantity in strong nuclear force and electromagnetic interactions but is violated in weak nuclear force interactions, which would make quark and lepton masses zero in this later case. However, interactions with the Higgs field can generate fermion masses due to the non-zero expectation value φ0 of this field, as well as with interactions with the Higgs bosons. These interactions have a dimensionless coupling constant g(Hff) related to the fermions mass m(f) by the expression: –

g(Hff) = √ (√2G(f)m(f) ²)

Where G(f) is the Fermi coupling constant and f is any quark or lepton flavour. However, this theory, that the fermion masses are mediated by their interaction with the Higgs field, does not predict their mass m(f). However, with the future discovery of the Higgs boson the above equation can be used to confirm the observed coupling constant g(Hff).

At CERN, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will search for the Higgs boson at an energy of up to 1 TeV by colliding protons in the reaction: –

p + p -> H0 + X

Thus, the discovery of the Higg’s boson (some theories suggest that there are three such bosons) will complete the standard gauge model of elementary particles and their interactions.

There is an article about it below under “The search for God begins” – the 2nd link is a quicker one.

Its the god particle that only stays around for a few microseconds and has negligiable mass.

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Tuesday, March 9th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on Higgs Boson – Can someone explain the Higgs-Boson particle?