Big Bang

Lhc – Quarks, Big Bang and Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

People are curios. Curiosity is one of the key elements that drives humanity towards the answers about our existence and our future. Since ancient times people have asked themselves about the origins of everything. From universe to the basic elements of the matter. Some people many thousands years ago assumed that if you divide some piece of matter this division must come to an end. This process should end with the basic, indivisible elements that constitute matter–atoms.

In the last centuries many experiments have confirmed that the matter is indeed consisted of some small particles. Scientific approach has contributed to the discovery of various natural and synthetic substances, molecules, chemical elements and atoms. Atoms, once believed to be indivisible, were also found to have some hard nucleus with electrons orbiting around it. Then it was discovered that the atom nucleus is consisted of protons and neutrons. So the atoms are divisible. This fact had many consequences. One of them with the most notable effect is fission nuclear bomb. However, the division story didn’t end there. Protons and neutrons were also found to contain some smaller particles–quarks.

Currently the list of all elementary particles is pretty long. This list is part of the Standard model–a model of how everything exists and interacts. It is believed that this model is not the final picture of the universe. There are still some unanswered questions. On the other hand, the universe itself is a subject of investigation. One of the key discoveries was that the universe is expanding. From this fact we can conclude that in the past the universe was smaller. The more we go into the past, the smaller it was. Sooner or later we come to the moment in time where the universe was infinitely small. This is called the Big Bang–the moment when the universe started to develop as we know it today, some 13.7 billion years ago. This is now the leading theory about the evolution of the universe. It is still unknown what banged, how and why.

The latest project to find some missing answers is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN, Geneva. It is a giant ring 100 meters under ground where two beams of particles close to light speed will collide. Each collision will produce an enormous amount of other particles. Analysis of this debris will hopefully answer some questions about the nature of particles or even bring some new ones. Because of enormous collision energy (about 14 TeV) the circumstances will be close to the situation immediately after big bang. The LHC project is currently the largest and the most expensive scientific project.

Answering questions about micro and macro world will not only satisfy our curiosity but will also help us to understand the world. If we understand the world then we can make it better. And better world is a dream of everybody.

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Thursday, March 11th, 2010 Articles Comments Off on Lhc – Quarks, Big Bang and Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?

I dont understand how the conditions of big bang can be created by colliding two particles ??
Wont it result in fatal explosion??
What are the particles that are being collided??
What will be ultimately discovered and what will the significance of the discovery??
What are the hazards we face because of the collider ??
When will the experiment end ??
Who is financing the research ??

1. Energy density is the key – the collisions reach energy densities that existed right after the Big Bang. The higher the energy density, the closer you are to the energy densities right after the Big Bang. Depending on energy density, the more different reactions happen after the collision. The LHC does not create a second Big Bang (for that you would need MUCH more energy, since the age of superinflation is not even reached yet in terms of energy density), it only experimentally recreates the conditions afterwards.
2. No, not even if they do an emergency shutdown. Such a shutdown would project the energy of a 500 kg bomb into two dead-end sections of the accelerator ring, that are especially designed and cooled for absorbing the energy stored in the beams.
3. Protons and eventually lead ions.
4. No idea. I am pretty bad in predicting the future. But it’s first purpose is to verify experimental data from other old particle accelerators, that was beyond the measurement accuracy of these. The LHC has much better sensors as older accelerators.
5. Unless you work for the CERN, there is no hazard. We have detected 150,000 protons with tiny detectors in 15 years, that came from space and have up to 300,000,000 times the energy of the protons inside the LHC. Such protons bombard Earth for billions of years, without causing trouble.
6. In about 15-20 years, after some upgrades.
7. The CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It is funded from taxes of almost all European countries, the top three are Germany, UK and France.The LHC construction had been paid by the European countries + USA, Japan & Canada directly, the CERN is only responsible for the research operations – CERN are the guys who invented the Internet as you know it, at that time for exchanging research data in the highly decentralized CERN (the experiments in CERN are independent and have no central management above them)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, intended to collide opposing particle beams of either protons at an energy of 7 TeV per particle or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV per nucleus. It is expected that it will address the most fundamental questions of physics, which seem to block further progress in understanding the deepest laws of nature. The LHC lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as much as 175 metres (570 ft) beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland.

The Large Hadron Collider was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) with the intention of testing various predictions of high-energy physics, including the existence of the hypothesized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetry. It is funded by and built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

On 10 September 2008, the proton beams were successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC for the first time.[4] On 19 September 2008, the operations were halted due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets.[5] Repairing the resulting damage and installing additional safety features took over a year.[6][7] On 20 November 2009 the proton beams were successfully circulated again,[8] and the first high-energy collisions are expected to be attempted in early 2010.[9]

So you have already been told about the LHC, lets concentrate on your other questions.
Big Bang states that universe was originated from a highly dense point of pure energy (no matter).thus when two very thin particle beams are accelerated in opposite directions they gain very high momentum and then when they collide it creates a situation analogues to the Big Bang.
No it doesnt result in a fatal explosion but in creation of matter and anti-matter. If this happens then it will prove our long belief of the Bang. No hazards of the collider, just that its 27 kms long and requires a hell lot of space.

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Wednesday, March 10th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?