LHC

European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?

I dont understand how the conditions of big bang can be created by colliding two particles ??
Wont it result in fatal explosion??
What are the particles that are being collided??
What will be ultimately discovered and what will the significance of the discovery??
What are the hazards we face because of the collider ??
When will the experiment end ??
Who is financing the research ??

1. Energy density is the key – the collisions reach energy densities that existed right after the Big Bang. The higher the energy density, the closer you are to the energy densities right after the Big Bang. Depending on energy density, the more different reactions happen after the collision. The LHC does not create a second Big Bang (for that you would need MUCH more energy, since the age of superinflation is not even reached yet in terms of energy density), it only experimentally recreates the conditions afterwards.
2. No, not even if they do an emergency shutdown. Such a shutdown would project the energy of a 500 kg bomb into two dead-end sections of the accelerator ring, that are especially designed and cooled for absorbing the energy stored in the beams.
3. Protons and eventually lead ions.
4. No idea. I am pretty bad in predicting the future. But it’s first purpose is to verify experimental data from other old particle accelerators, that was beyond the measurement accuracy of these. The LHC has much better sensors as older accelerators.
5. Unless you work for the CERN, there is no hazard. We have detected 150,000 protons with tiny detectors in 15 years, that came from space and have up to 300,000,000 times the energy of the protons inside the LHC. Such protons bombard Earth for billions of years, without causing trouble.
6. In about 15-20 years, after some upgrades.
7. The CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It is funded from taxes of almost all European countries, the top three are Germany, UK and France.The LHC construction had been paid by the European countries + USA, Japan & Canada directly, the CERN is only responsible for the research operations – CERN are the guys who invented the Internet as you know it, at that time for exchanging research data in the highly decentralized CERN (the experiments in CERN are independent and have no central management above them)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, intended to collide opposing particle beams of either protons at an energy of 7 TeV per particle or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV per nucleus. It is expected that it will address the most fundamental questions of physics, which seem to block further progress in understanding the deepest laws of nature. The LHC lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as much as 175 metres (570 ft) beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland.

The Large Hadron Collider was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) with the intention of testing various predictions of high-energy physics, including the existence of the hypothesized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetry. It is funded by and built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

On 10 September 2008, the proton beams were successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC for the first time.[4] On 19 September 2008, the operations were halted due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets.[5] Repairing the resulting damage and installing additional safety features took over a year.[6][7] On 20 November 2009 the proton beams were successfully circulated again,[8] and the first high-energy collisions are expected to be attempted in early 2010.[9]

So you have already been told about the LHC, lets concentrate on your other questions.
Big Bang states that universe was originated from a highly dense point of pure energy (no matter).thus when two very thin particle beams are accelerated in opposite directions they gain very high momentum and then when they collide it creates a situation analogues to the Big Bang.
No it doesnt result in a fatal explosion but in creation of matter and anti-matter. If this happens then it will prove our long belief of the Bang. No hazards of the collider, just that its 27 kms long and requires a hell lot of space.

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Wednesday, March 10th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?

The Large Hadron Collider chosen

1991 In December, CERN’s Council delegates agree unanimously that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the right machine for further significant advance in the field of high-energy physics research and for the future of CERN.

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Friday, March 5th, 2010 Articles Comments Off on The Large Hadron Collider chosen

Large Hadron Collider becomes world’s most powerful particle accelerator

Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider at Cern near Geneva are celebrating a major milestone after the machine broke energy records overnight to become the most powerful particle accelerator in the world.

At 12.44am this morning, the LHC accelerated beams of subatomic particles to higher energies than any achieved before in a collider.

LHC

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel at CernPhotograph: Martial Trezzini/AP

The machine, which occupies a 27km circular tunnel that straddles the French-Swiss border, was restarted 10 days ago after being shut down for more than a year while engineers repaired damage caused by a helium leak when it was first switched on in September last year.

“The machine is working like a dream,” Lyn Evans, project manager of the LHC, told the Guardian. “It’s brilliant. By the end of the week we should be really moving.”

Inside the particle accelerator, two counter-rotating beams of hydrogen nuclei are whipped up to more than 99.99% the speed of light. At four points around the machine the beams are crossed, steering the particles into high-energy smash-ups. The collisions recreate in microcosm the conditions that existed moments after the big bang.

According to Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2, the energy released by the collisions can create matter in the form of particles that appear in the collider’s detectors.

Scientists hope that when they sift through the subatomic debris they will find particles that are new to physics, such as the Higgs boson, which gives mass to elementary particles, and possibly particles of dark matter, an elusive substance that clusters around galaxies and accounts for most of the mass in the universe.

At 9.48pm last night, engineers at Cern accelerated one beam of particles to 1.05 trillion electronvolts. Three hours later, both beams were hurtling around the machine, each with an energy of 1.18 trillion electronvolts. The energies are greater than any achieved at what is now the second most powerful collider in the world, the Tevatron at Fermilab on the outskirts of Chicago.

“For me, it’s not so much the energy record that matters, it’s that we’ve got through the start of the acceleration process where things are changing rapidly,” Evans said. As the beams are accelerated, eddy currents build up in the enormous superconducting magnets inside the machine and produce erratic magnetic fields that affect how the beams behave.

In the next few days, Cern managers will decide whether to start colliding particles at even greater energy, or run for a short time at lower energies. Scientists will use the first collisions to calibrate their detectors, ensuring they pick up any particles that might be produced under the known laws of physics.

“We’re about to move into a new energy regime, and when we do that, we can start to see new things,” Evans said.

“We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going. It is fantastic,” said Rolf Heuer, Cern’s director general. “We are continuing to take it step by step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010. I’m keeping my champagne on ice until then.”

Over the next week, engineers will increase the beam intensity to a level that is expected, before Christmas, to reveal new physics at work. The first extended series of high-energy collisions is expected to start in January or February next year, when each beam will be accelerated to 3.5 trillion electronvolts.

“I was here 20 years ago when we switched on Cern’s last major particle accelerator, LEP,” said Steve Myers, Cern’s director of accelerators and technology, referring to the Large Electron Positron collider, which smashed electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons.

“I thought that was a great machine to operate, but this is something else. What took us days or weeks with LEP we’re doing in hours with the LHC. So far, it all augurs well for a great research programme.”

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Large Hadron Collider becomes world’s most powerful particle accelerator

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Monday, November 30th, 2009 Articles Comments Off on Large Hadron Collider becomes world’s most powerful particle accelerator