Protons Energy – What happens to the energy when 2 protons collide head-on and 100s of particles fly out in all directions?

If you are talking about particle accelerators, a lot happens to the energy. Since the protons have so much kinetic energy when they collide, they don’t simply stay as protons. They turn into 100’s of particles, also moving quickly. Since E = mc^2, we don’t need to conserve just mass or just energy. In fact, if we total the mass times c^2 and the energy of all these particles, we would get the original two protons’ energy.

The resulting shower of particles then goes and hits or bounces off other things, which equipment in the particle accelerator is designed to detect, since it heats the equipment up ever so slightly. The rest just fly off until they decay into something stable.

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Monday, March 15th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on Protons Energy – What happens to the energy when 2 protons collide head-on and 100s of particles fly out in all directions?

European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?

I dont understand how the conditions of big bang can be created by colliding two particles ??
Wont it result in fatal explosion??
What are the particles that are being collided??
What will be ultimately discovered and what will the significance of the discovery??
What are the hazards we face because of the collider ??
When will the experiment end ??
Who is financing the research ??

1. Energy density is the key – the collisions reach energy densities that existed right after the Big Bang. The higher the energy density, the closer you are to the energy densities right after the Big Bang. Depending on energy density, the more different reactions happen after the collision. The LHC does not create a second Big Bang (for that you would need MUCH more energy, since the age of superinflation is not even reached yet in terms of energy density), it only experimentally recreates the conditions afterwards.
2. No, not even if they do an emergency shutdown. Such a shutdown would project the energy of a 500 kg bomb into two dead-end sections of the accelerator ring, that are especially designed and cooled for absorbing the energy stored in the beams.
3. Protons and eventually lead ions.
4. No idea. I am pretty bad in predicting the future. But it’s first purpose is to verify experimental data from other old particle accelerators, that was beyond the measurement accuracy of these. The LHC has much better sensors as older accelerators.
5. Unless you work for the CERN, there is no hazard. We have detected 150,000 protons with tiny detectors in 15 years, that came from space and have up to 300,000,000 times the energy of the protons inside the LHC. Such protons bombard Earth for billions of years, without causing trouble.
6. In about 15-20 years, after some upgrades.
7. The CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It is funded from taxes of almost all European countries, the top three are Germany, UK and France.The LHC construction had been paid by the European countries + USA, Japan & Canada directly, the CERN is only responsible for the research operations – CERN are the guys who invented the Internet as you know it, at that time for exchanging research data in the highly decentralized CERN (the experiments in CERN are independent and have no central management above them)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, intended to collide opposing particle beams of either protons at an energy of 7 TeV per particle or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV per nucleus. It is expected that it will address the most fundamental questions of physics, which seem to block further progress in understanding the deepest laws of nature. The LHC lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as much as 175 metres (570 ft) beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland.

The Large Hadron Collider was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) with the intention of testing various predictions of high-energy physics, including the existence of the hypothesized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetry. It is funded by and built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

On 10 September 2008, the proton beams were successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC for the first time.[4] On 19 September 2008, the operations were halted due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets.[5] Repairing the resulting damage and installing additional safety features took over a year.[6][7] On 20 November 2009 the proton beams were successfully circulated again,[8] and the first high-energy collisions are expected to be attempted in early 2010.[9]

So you have already been told about the LHC, lets concentrate on your other questions.
Big Bang states that universe was originated from a highly dense point of pure energy (no matter).thus when two very thin particle beams are accelerated in opposite directions they gain very high momentum and then when they collide it creates a situation analogues to the Big Bang.
No it doesnt result in a fatal explosion but in creation of matter and anti-matter. If this happens then it will prove our long belief of the Bang. No hazards of the collider, just that its 27 kms long and requires a hell lot of space.

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Wednesday, March 10th, 2010 Questions Comments Off on European Organization For Nuclear Research – What is actually the Hadron collider is all about ?